Database management is a system for managing information that supports the company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to applications and users and editing it as required and monitoring changes to data and protecting against data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is an element of an organization’s overall informational infrastructure that aids in decision-making, corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were created in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) that allowed the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a variety of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a set of tables which organize data in accordance with a specific pattern, such as one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a set of attributes or fields that represent facts about data entities. Relational models, which were developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are the most popular database type in the present. This design is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It is also easier to update data because it does not require the changing of many sections of the databases.

Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level focuses on cost, scalability and other operational issues such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the way the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a combination of various external views (based on different data models) and may include virtual tables that are created from generic data in order to improve performance.