Database management is the system for managing information that aids the company’s business operations. It involves storing data, disseminating it to applications and users and editing it when needed and monitoring changes to the data and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It is part of the entire informational infrastructure of a business which supports decision-making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which made it possible to store and retrieve large amounts of data for a variety of purposes, ranging from calculating inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that store data in accordance with a specific pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and permit cross-references between tables. Each table has a collection of fields called attributes which provide information about data entities. The most widely used type of database that is currently in use is a relational model created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data since it eliminates the necessity of changing various databases.

Most DBMSs support multiple database types by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is concerned with costs, scalability, and other operational issues like the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of various external views based on different models of data and can include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to enhance the performance.